Forts and Defence
 Lines in Scandinavia
                         

 
The Author:

 
Denmark during
 the Cold War

 The Stevns Fort

 HAWK, Hoejerup

 HAWK,  Stevns  Fort

 NIKE,  Sigerslev

 The Cold War Museum
 Stevnsfortet

 To Stevns start

 Site0 start


































































































































































 

                             HAWK Battery Stevns Fort
        
                                   Danish Air Defence Group
                                         
Squadron 541
                                                                                  


 A little Hawk history

  1952 Development of the HAWK missile system began. United States Army began studies into a medium
            range semi-active radar homing surface to air missile.
 1954  Northrop was awarded the development contracts for the launcher, radars and fire control systems,
            while
            Raytheon was awarded the contract for the missile.
 1956  The first test launch of the  missile then designated the XSAM-A-18 took place.
 1957  Development was completed, by which time the designation had changed to XM3 and XM3E1.
 1959  The missile was deployed by the U.S. Army.
 1960 Deployed by the US Marine Corps.

 To replace the old NIKE AJAX and NIKE HERCULES, Denmark was offerered 4 HAWK missile batteries:

 
 They were deployed around Copenhagen, to protect the capitol against air raids.
 
  In 1983 Squadron 541 was moved from the Middelgrunds Fort to the Stevns Fort.
 
 The Stevns Fort role was changing gradually from an artillery Fort to a SAM missile base.

 From 1989 to 2000 Squad. 541 was training Squadron for the entire Air Defence Group. 2800  was trained
 at Stevns in that perod.
 
 In 2000 the Squadron was moved from Stevns.
 
 The misiles and the equipment below, is part of the Cold War Museum on The Stevns Fort.

 

  The Radar Components


 Hawk battery
 Stevns Fort
   
Click to enlarge
 
HPIR

ROR

CWAR
   
PAR
 

BCC
 

 BCC interior
 
 
 6 launch areas (3 Alpha and 3 Bravo) where the missile were mounted i 3 on the launcher.  In the area
 there were  the missiles, the launchers and a command center. Besides that there were loaders
 and transporters for the missiles
 

 Battery Control Central
                  BCC

 Command room in BCC
 

 PAR and HPIR Bravo
 

        View of the 
      launcher area
 
The Radars:

 
        
         PAR:
         Pulse Acquisition Radar.
         Normal pulse radar
.
 

 
                  
                       ROR
                Range only radar.
      Passive radar. No active signals.
 
       
       CWAR
    Continious Wave Acquisition Radar.
     Doppler radar against low targets.

 
            
           HPIR
           High Powered Illuminator Radar
           Combined Doppler target and missile radar.
 
 Later the Danish Airforce got some improved radars. They were called IPAR, IROR, ICWAR and IHPIR. The I
 for improved.

 
             

 The BCC (Battery Control Central). From here everything is controlled.
 The crew is composed af an TCO (Tactical Control Officer) who control the launchers by orders from
 the ROC (missile Operation Central) and on the impression from the Acuisitionscope and the plotter
 board.
 The TCO is assisted by the TCA (Tactical Control Assistent) who, among other things, is responsible
 for the plotter board.
 Furthermore there are a CWAR operator and two FCO (Fire Control Operator).They are responsible
 for the fire console for Fire Section Alpha and Fire Section Bravo.


 The Missiles and the Launch Area

 Hawk is an acronym for Homing All the Way Killer.
 The guidence system is called Beam Rider.That means that the misile, by a little radar in the nose,
 follows a radar beam from the ground to the target. This beam is sent out by the HPIR unit.

 The misiles was mounted on a launcher. Three on every launcher.

 To load the launchers the were a number of transporters and loaders

                           

                     The Launch area was composed by Fire section Alpha and Fire Section Bravo.
            Each section could be operated separately. (Please see the map on the top of the page)
 

                              

                                     Every launcher was separated by ramparts to prevent
                                   explosions or blast to spread trom launcher to launcher