Fredericia and Jutland 1849
the Danish army had moved towards Schleswig, they won the first battle
at Bov, but was shortly after faced by superior
forces. The Danish army retreated and large parts of Jutland was occupied.
The fortress at the city of Fredericia was
considered impossible af a redoubt, since the fortress had not been
maintained for 100 years and was not suitable for war.
after, a ceasefire was agreed, which lasted until April 1849.
The ceasefire, however, had been so unfavorable to
Denmark, that the Danes almost looked forward to resuming the war.
war was actually resumed in 1849.
Danish army was now facing the Prussian general Prittwitz with a total
of 61,000 men and General Bonin, who
special Schleswig-Holstein strength of 14,000 men.
Danish army counted only 41,000 men, and they had to retreat to the
island Als and to the fortress og Fredericia.
had meanwhile been combative, and parts of the Danish force went into
the fortress, while other parts pulled back
to the island Funen.
Rye pulled by a slow retreat the German main force further up in
General Bonin and his Schleswig- Holstein
army was by his commanding general ordered to prevent the Danes from
attacking the German forces from the fortress of
May 7th General Bonin arrived with the army of 14,000 men to the City of
Fredericia and during the first week they built the
Rendsburg he had procured 14 pieces of siege artillery and already the
May 16th a bombardment of the city began.
bombardement started at
3:00 in the morning.
four 168-pound mortars were the most effective.
49 houses were destroyed and 200 damaged.
The people fled to the
Citadel, where they felt themselves most secure.
Several, however, continued to the Funen.
bombardment had no effect on the city's defense capability, and only a
few lives were lost.
The Soldiers' morale could
not be weakened as long as the lifeline to the Funen could be maintained.
General Bonins next move was to move the batteries nearer the harbor, and enable
them shoot at piers and shipping.
jetty facilities at Strib were destroyed, but the Danes brought several
farther east, outside the reach of the enemy
Instead Bonin launched an artillery battle during the period june 3th to
june 17th, attempting to bombarde the fortress and the city.
combat got more and more the character of a decisive battle, and the
Danish artillery did everything they could.
now apparent that the fortress artillery were superior to the German , not
least by much more ammunition.
Bonin artillery was, gun by gun, destroyed and could not be replaced.
For example, half of the powerfull 168 pound
mortars were destroyed.
the same time the attacker suffered from a June, that this year was
unusually cold and rainy, and the failed attacks
to lower the morale by the soldiers.
Princippet i morteren
Bonin was at this time aware, that reinforcemants were brought from the
outside to Fredericia.
Because the Danisk navy had absolute superiority at sea, it was possible
to transport soldiers and equipment from both the
Funen in the east, the
Island Helgenæs in the north and from Als and Soenderborg in the south
without being disturbed.
He had the choice to pull back and get ready for aDanish attack from the
fortress, og to or even abolish the siege and
withdraw even farther away.
chose to stay in the besieged position.
The outcome of the Danish attack July 6th 1849
Bülow's plan was to assemble a large army in Fredericia, make a sortie
and add Bonin and his Schleswig Holstein
army a serious defeat.
For this undertaking General de Meza brought a brigade of 5 battalions,
a total of 5000 soldiers from
Als, and general Rye brought from Helgenæs
total numbers of the Danisk army in Fredericia were now 23,000 ,
opposing the 14.000 from the Schleswig-Holstein rebel
army outside. .
a council of war on July 4th 1849 at Vejlby rectory,
General Bülow maintained an overall attack from the fortress. The
situation was favorable because the enemy was divided into four
In some places, the gap between the
groups up to 1 kilometer wide.
Because of the Danish fortress artillery range, there was also a huge
gap between the
Schleswig-Holstein frontline and camps, where the
reserves were located. General de Meza should push forward on the
northern front between the Holstein's posts
General Schleppegrells brigade would follow and capture positions south
of it and general Rye
walk up along the beach and attack and conquer the posts on the
coast with his brigade og 5000 men while the Moltke
was hard fighting around the redoubt No. III, who managed to obtain
reinforcements from behind.
Only when general
Bonin pulled his troops away, the redoubt was
The redoubt No. V (Trelde redoubt) also made great resistance.
he Danish troops surrounded it and even intercepted the reinforcement
from the camp behind it.
Molktes brigade of 1000 men succeeded to occupy the redoubt , which was
defended by 200 men.
brigades of Schleppegrell and Moltke now surrounded the remaining enemy
redoubts and captured them.
Angrebet på Trelleskanse
Originally it was General Bülow's plan two dig in the troops on the
grounds outside the Fredericia fortress, but he changed
and at 8 pm. All the remaining soldiers were back behind the rampages
and artillery in Fredericia