Author of This Site
Prelude to the Wars
The First War
The Battles 1848-51
The Siege of Fredericia
Second War 1864
The Siege of
The Attack on Dybboel
The Attack on the Als
Southern part of Jutland in the period between 1864 and 1920
Jutland was after 1864 a distant fringe of the great German Empire, and
the weakened economic expansion
emigration and slow urbanization.
Agriculture became more intensive and industrialization began, but
only fully reflected in
the city Flensburg.
The infrastructure was developed with steamboats, a modern road network
and particularly railways.
In Denmark, the government after New Year 1866
was aware that it pulled up to
the war between Prussia and Austria.
background was was
disagreements on the former Danish duchy Holstein, where Austria after 1864 had been the
Following an advice
from France, the Danish government
for Prussia, on the condition that Denmark
have Schleswig north of the
However, Bismarck refused pure, he had no use for Danish support to
July 3th 1866 Prussia was victorious in the battle of Sadova, and
on the 23th, with France as mediator,
Austria signed a prece treaty in Prague.
the Prague treaty § 5
France gained included:
"Residents in the northern district of Schleswig shall be forfeited to
Denmark when they at a free referendum,
to reconcile with Denmark. "
The pro-Danish North Schleswig (South Jutland) protested in the first
decades after 1864 energetically against the German
occurred in particular in light of § 5 int he Prague peace.
This clause was repealed in 1879.
A speciel group of former Danes the socalled (in
danish) "Optanter" and especially their children,
gave rise to problems
between the Prussian
administration and the former
Danish subjects in Southern Jutland. The "Optanter" were the Danes
who lived in the new Prussian North Schleswig
from 1864 to
They could stay and keep their Danish citizenship "if they were not a
Otherwise they could
expelled to Denmark.
The "Optanter" could also choose to seek German citizenship, although this
was largely obstructed by the German
It was worse with their children, known
They were from a Danish point of
view born in Germany and
thus not Danish
from a German point of view, they were of Danish nationality and
therefore not German subjects
fact they were stateless, and
as time went by, there were
fewer "optanter" and more and more" optant-children".
in 1907 solved this problem only partially.
To prepare for a protracted
nationality struggle, the Danish
movement from the 1880s organized in a number of large and
small national associations.
The connection to Denmark was strengthened in line with the
intensification of the govern-
ments and local administrations attempts to
Germanize North Schleswig by force.
In 1888 German-only teaching in schools and the state began
simultaneous buying of agricultural land to ensure
During World War I Former
Danish men were conscripted into the Imperial German Army
and in German service
1914-1918 approx. 5000
Danes were killed.
The Northern part of Slesvig was during the war drained of men in a
Russian POWs were sent to help on farms.
The referendums in 1920.
At the peace in Saint-Germain-en-Laye,
September 10th 1919, gives Austria in Article 85
up its rights in the
former duchy of
At the peace in the Grand Trianon,
June 4th 1920, Hungary in Article 69 corresponding
its rights in
In 1920, was conducted two referenda which led to the formation of the
February10th voted North
Schleswig with a majority of 75% of the votes
March 14th voted 80% of the
voters in the middle of
Schleswig for a continued presence in
On both sides of the border was thus national minorities.
The reunion with the rest of Denmark after 54 years as "Germans" called
on the national feelings.